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ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

Piping Systems - Mechanical Design and Specification

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About the course

This five-day foundation level course for engineers and piping system designers reviews the key areas associated with the design of piping systems for oil and gas facilities. The course is focused on four areas: codes and standards, pipe materials and manufacture, piping components, and piping layout and design. Applicable piping codes for oil and gas facilities (ISO, B31.3, B31.4, B31.8, etc.), pipe sizing calculations, pipe installation, and materials selection are an integral part of the course. The emphasis is on proper material selection and specification of piping systems.

Course Objectives

Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:

  • Apply piping system codes and standards
  • Determine line sizing and layout of piping systems in various types of facilities
  • Specify proper components for process and utility applications
  • Compare alternative materials of construction
  • Illustrate the process of steelmaking, pipe manufacturing and material specifications
  • Use joining methods and inspection techniques
  • Identify key considerations for flare and vent systems, including PSV sizing

Agenda

Day 1

Basics of Pipeline Engineering

  • The Oil & Gas Industry
  • Introduction to Pipelines
  • History of Pipelines
  • Basic pipeline and material parameters
  • Pipeline Safety

Basics of Pipeline Engineering

  • Steels used for Line pipe
  • Mechanical Properties, Grades and Chemical Composition of materials
  • Material Properties for FFS assessment
  • Strength Parameters
  • Yield and Tensile strength
  • Flow Stress
  • Stress-Strain relationship
  • Physical properties
  • Elastic Modulus
  • Poisson's Ratio
  • Coefficient of Thermal expansion
  • Fatigue Toughness
  • Fracture Toughness Parameters
  • Low bound fracture Toughness
  • Charpy V-Notch data
  • Fracture Toughness for in-service materials
  • Temper Embrittlement
  • Pipeline Welding and Manufacturing Techniques - Seamless, Longitudinal Welded,
  • RW, Spiral
  • Methods for Improving Corrosion Resistance
  • Internally Clad Pipe
  • Latest Materials Developments

Pipeline Design

  • Pipeline Codes and Standards
  • Legislation and Regulations
  • Design Process
  • Detailed design:
  • Product categorization
  • Locating pipelines
  • Design pressures, factors, and stressing
  • Pipeline Crossings
  • Pipeline Valves
  • Surges/overpressures
  • Bends
  • Pipe protection
  • Fracture control
  • Fluids and Hydraulics

Day 2

Pipeline Route Alignment Considerations

  • Basics of routing
  • Classification schemes
  • Easements and rights of way
  • Legislation and permits
  • Routing methodologiesy 2

Pipeline Welding

  • Basics of Welding
  • Types of Welding Processes
  • Effects on Line pipe of the Welding Process
  • Welding Procedures
  • Inspection of Welds
  • Local Thin area assessment / Material Loss calculations

Exercise Part 1

  • Material selection, wall thickness, corrosion allowance
  • Coating and field joints
  • Stability and weight coating

Internal Pipeline Corrosion

  • Why Pipes Corrode
  • Sweet Corrosion, Sour Corrosion, Microbiological Corrosion
  • Cracking Mechanisms
  • Calculating Corrosion Rates
  • Effect of Flow on Corrosion
  • Water Injection Pipelines

Day 3

Monitoring of Internal Pipeline Corrosion

  • Corrosion and Internal Failure Mechanism
  • Inhibition of Corrosion
  • Biocide Treatment of Pipelines
  • Monitoring Internal Corrosion
  • Supplementary Inspection Techniques

Pipeline Testing, Operation, Inspection

  • Pressure Testing
  • Batching
  • Incorrect operation
  • Control Systems, Leak Detection
  • Inspection and monitoring of operational pipelines

External Pipeline Corrosion and its Prevention

  • External Corrosion in Soils
  • Coatings and their Application
  • Field Joints
  • Interaction of Coatings and Cathodic Protection
  • Exercise Part 2

  • Thickness, MAWP and Membrane Stress Equation for a FFS Assessment

  • Calculation of Minimum Thickness

  • Calculation of MAWP (MFH)

  • Calculation of Membrane Stress

Day 4

Cathodic Protection

  • How Cathodic Protection Works
  • Monitoring of CP at Test Points
  • Full Line Surveys with CIPS and Instant Off Surveys
  • Coating Surveys using Pearson and DCVG Techniques
  • Interference from Third Party Lines and DC/AC systems

Metal Loss

  • General Metal Loss due to Corrosion and/or Erosion
  • Localized Metal Loss due to Corrosion and/or Erosion
  • Surface Connected Cracking
  • Subsurface Cracking and Microfissuring/Microvoid Formation
  • Metallurgical Changes
  • In-Service deterioration and damage

Crack Growth

  • Categories of Crack Growth
  • Crack Initiation
  • Creep Crack Growth
  • Creep Rupture
  • Creep Strain-Rate Data
  • Exercise 3: Fatigue Crack Growth Calculation

Utility and Intelligent (Smart) Pig Inspection

  • The History of Internal Inspection
  • Why ‘Pig’?
  • Types of Pig
  • The History of Internal Inspection
  • Why ‘Pig’?
  • Types of Pig
  • Intelligent (Smart) Pigs:
  • Metal loss (MFL, UT)
  • Geometry
  • Mapping
  • Crack detection
  • What do they find and how accurate are they?

Case Studies

  • AFCM
  • Subsea MPI
  • Reporting of Subsea inspection

Day 5

Leak detection

Pipeline Integrity Management

  • Risk and risk analysis
  • Integrity management methods:
  • API 1160
  • ASME B31.8S
  • Types of pipelines with respect to their functions (purposes)
  • The transportation of natural gas
  • Pipeline components
  • Pipes and pipe supports
  • Pipe specifications
  • Pipe end connections
  • Pipeline supports
  • Steel pipe specifications
  • Pipeline valves
  • The pipeline design steps
  • Selection of pipeline route
  • Pipeline sizing (diameter of the pipeline for certain capacity / flow rate)
  • Pipeline supports
  • Pipeline pumping/compression stations
  • Pipeline components: The required technical specification for vendors
  • Pipeline construction
  • Pipeline pressure test and commissioning
  • Pipeline coating & Cathodic protection system
  • Pipeline preservation
  • Pipeline start up / operational problems
  • Pigging process: Why & how?

Who should attend

This course is intended for mechanical, facilities, plant or pipeline engineers and piping system designers who are involved in the design of in-plant piping systems for oil and gas facilities.

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