ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

Inspection & Maintenance of Subsea Pipelines & Offshore Structures

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About the course

The course will provide a complete and up-to-date overview of the area of the marine pipeline engineering, taking delegates through the pre-design phase, design, construction, installation, operation and maintenance. It will give a complete picture of the work of design engineers and pipeline construction companies, using actual case studies from around the world to highlight the topics discussed.

The course does not requires previous experience of marine pipelines, this is not a superficial overview, and it goes into detail about current thinking and recent developments.

Course Objectives

Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:

  • Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on subsea pipeline engineering
  • Differentiate the internal corrosion, external corrosion and coatings as well as the significance of cathodic protection
  • Employ the proper method of shore approaches and describe the design for stability
  • Discuss marine pipeline construction, route selection, hydraulics and flow assurance
  • Explain the design for strength as well as insulation and temperature control
  • Demonstrate the design exercise including pipeline configuration, diameter and route selection
  • Evaluate the design exercise and conclusion and discuss welding and decommissioning including pipeline construction

Course Outline

Day 1

Design Overview and introduction to marine pipeline construction

  • Introduction to design sequence and its interaction with the different topics covered in the course
  • Film on construction and connection of an offshore pipeline

Route Selection

  • Principles of route selection
  • Constraints imposed by oceanographic, geotechnical, environmental, safety and political factors

Introduction to Design Exercise

Design Exercise Phase 1

  • Configuration and route selection

Presentation of Conclusions of Phase 1 of Design Exercise

  • Participants present their choices of route

Marine Environment

  • Waves; currents: tide, storm surge, loop currents; seabed geotechnics; biology

Carbon Steel Line Pipe

  • Fabrication of API pipe
  • Increasing the strength of pipeline steel
  • Balancing strength, toughness and weld ability

Day 2

Increasing Corrosion Resistance

  • Increasing the corrosion resistance of carbon steels
  • Limitations of use of solid corrosion resistant alloys
  • Internally clad pipe
  • Flexible pipe

Design for Stability

  • Hydrodynamic forces in steady and unsteady flow
  • Lateral resistance
  • Interaction with seabed instability

Spans

  • Description of span occurrence
  • Need not to exaggerate problem
  • Analysis: vortex-induced vibration, overstress, hooking
  • Span monitoring and correction

Hydraulics and Flow Assurance

  • Single-phase flow, oil and gas
  • Calculation of pressure drop and effect on optimal line in size
  • Influence of compressibility, temperature change and profile, two phase flow
  • Flow regimes, correlations, profile effects, terrain-induced slugging, slugging in risers
  • Hydrates and wax

Materials for Sour Service

  • Pipeline steels for sour service: sulfide stress cracking and HIC
  • Appropriate specification of pipe material

Design for Strength

  • Internal pressure, code requirements
  • External pressure; bending; bending buckling; collapse and buckle propagation; denting and gouging; allowable strain design; impact damage

Day 3

External Corrosion and Coatings

  • Coating for submarine pipeline: enamels, FBE, triple coats, extruded coatings and elastomers.
  • Inspection of coating integrity
  • Field joints

Cathodic Protection

  • Conjoint protection by coating and cathodic protection
  • Mechanism of CP
  • Design of sacrificial anode systems
  • Thermal effects on CP performance
  • Interactions between CP Systems

Lateral and Upheaval Buckling

  • Upheaval buckling onshore; driving force; analysis
  • Alternative approaches to control of upheaval
  • Case study of upheaval buckling
  • Ongoing studies

Pipe laying

  • Alternative construction techniques
  • Lay barge S-Lay and J-Lay
  • Reeling
  • Surface, mid-depth and bottom tow
  • Videos illustrating alternatives

Codes

  • Historical background
  • Use and misuse of codes
  • Alternative approaches to codes
  • Limit states
  • Code calibration

### Day 4

Microbiological Corrosion

  • Sulphate-reducing bacteria
  • Microbiological corrosion mechanisms
  • Evaluation of the severity of the problem
  • Housekeeping and treatment

Design Exercise Phase 2

Conclusions of Design Exercise

  • Participants present their designs
  • The lecturers critique the participants’ design, support the discussion with additional calculations

Mishaps, Risk and Repair

  • Safety of marine pipeline systems
  • Reliability analysis
  • Case studies of failures and subsequent repairs, Integrity management

Day 5

Monitoring and Inspection

  • Inspection before and during installation and commissioning
  • Inspection in service
  • Intelligent pigging
  • Corrosion monitoring
  • Analysis of corrosion monitoring data

Trenching and Burial

  • Reasons for trenching and burial
  • Alternatives: jetting, cutting, and ploughing

Welding

  • Welding of carbon manganese pipeline steels
  • Welding of duplex and clad pipe
  • Inspection of welds

Decommissioning

  • Legal, environmental and financial background
  • Legislations
  • Decay mechanisms
  • Alternative strategies: stabilization, recovery, re-use

Current and Future Developments

  • Progress in marine pipelines: new concepts, materials, construction techniques, weld methods

## Course Methodology

A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:

  • (30%) Based on Case Studies
  • (30%) Techniques
  • (30%) Role Play
  • (10%) Concepts
  • Pre-test and Post-test
  • Variety of Learning Methods
  • Lectures
  • Case Studies and Self Questionaires
  • Group Work
  • Discussion
  • Presentation

Who should attend

This course intended for Engineers from oil and gas companies, construction companies, pipe and service suppliers and regulatory authorities with responsibility for, or interest in, subsea pipeline design, construction, inspection, maintenance and repair. Those who are newly qualified, have recently moved into pipeline engineering, or hold broad responsibilities that include pipelines will also find the course of great value.

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