Hazardous Area Classification & Intrinsic Safety (iec 60079, ATEX 95/137, API RP 500/505)
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In an ideal a.c. power system, the voltage and frequency at every supply point would be the constant and free from harmonics, and the power factor would be unity. Most Industrial loads have lagging power factors. That is they absorb reactive power. The load current therefore tends to be larger than is required to supply the real power alone. Only the real power is ultimately useful in energy conversion and the excess load current represents a waste to the consumer, who has to pay not only for the excess cable capacity to carry it but also for the excess joule loss produced in the supply cables.
The supply utilities also have good reasons for not transmitting unnecessary reactive power from generators to loads. Their generators and distribution networks cannot be used at full efficiency, and the control of voltage in the supply system can become more difficult. Supply tariffs to industrial consumers almost always penalize low power factor loads.
It is much more practical and economical to size the power system according to the maximum demand for real power, and to manage the reactive power by means of compensators and other equipment which can be deployed more flexible than generating units and which make no contribution to fault levels.
Most a.c. power systems are three-phases, and are designed for balanced operation. Unbalanced operation gives rise to components of current in the wrong phase sequence (i.e. negative and zero sequence components). Such components can have undesirable effects, including additional losses in motor and generator units, oscillating torque in a.c. machines, increased ripple reactive In rectifier, malfunctions of several types of equipment, saturation of transformers, and excessive neutral currents. The load compensation improves the phase balancing and power factor correction of unsymmetrical loads. Many utilities need this particular course, which cover the illustration of main concepts of reactive power management using actual case studies.
Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas
- To review the history for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas.
- To understand the ATEX directives & CE marking for the Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas
- To understand the mechanism of different EX protection techniques. .
- To exchange experience for the installation, troubleshooting, and commissioning.
- To understand the needs of Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas.
- To select the Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas as per Zone classification.
- To practice Electrical Equipment selection in Hazardous Areas by an example in a sister company
- To overview the Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas related IEC 60079 & API 505 standards.
INTRODUCTION TO OFFSHORE FIELD DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
- Background and trends in offshore production
- Review of developments using fixed platforms and floating production systems
- Steps in the field development process and the range of vessels which support those activities
- Introduction to the course – objectives
- Pre assessment test
- HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS
- PRESENT SITUATION
- ELEMENTS OF HAZARDOUS AREA CLASSIFICATION
- Mixtures of Gases, Vapors and Air
- HAZARDOUS AREA ZONES ( IEC 60079-10, API RP 505)
- Non-hazardous Area
- Zone 2 Hazardous Area
- Zone 1 Hazardous Area
- Zone 0 Hazardous Area
- TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR HAZARDOUS AREAS
- Type of Protection 'd'; IEC 60079-1
- Type of Protection 'e'; IEC 60079-7
- Type of Protection 'i'; IEC 60079-11, IEC 60079-25, IEC 60079-27
- Type of Protection 'm'; IEC 60079-18
- Type of Protection 'N and 'n'; IEC 60079-15
- Type of Protection 'o'; IEC 60079-6
- Type of Protection 'p'; IEC 60079-2
- Type of Protection 'q'; IEC 60079-5
- Type of Protection's'; IEC 60079-16
- Type of Protection 'de'
- Standards of EX protection
- IEC 60079
- API RP 505
- TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR INGRESS OF WATER AND SOLID PARTICLES
- European Practice & American Practice
- CERTIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS AREA EQUIPMENT
- MARKING OF EQUIPMENT NAMEPLATES
- Egyptian LNG case study:
- Hazardous gas listing
- Area classification aspects
- Detailed area classification drawings
- Train area classification
- Tips for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas
- Selection tips
- Maintenance tips
- Review for course pending Q&A
- Review for course objectives
- Course feedback
- Review for pre assessment test
- Post assessment test
- Certificates distributions & close out
A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:
- (30%) Based on Case Studies
- (30%) Techniques
- (30%) Role Play
- (10%) Concepts
- Pre-test and Post-test
- Variety of Learning Methods
- Case Studies and Self Questionaires
- Group Work
Who should attend
This course is intended for Electrical Engineers, Electrical Maintenance Engineers, Electrical Senior Technicians, Instr & Control Engineers with an interest or hand on, in operation and installation and troubleshoot of Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas.