Fault Analysis in Electrical Networks & Distribution Cables

ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

How long?

  • 5 days
  • in person

What are the topics?

ICTD International Centre for Training and Development


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Who should attend

This course is intended for engineers, supervisors and other technical staff who work in transmission, distribution, maintenance, operation, control and analysis of utilities & industrial electrical networks.

About the course

The detection of faults on electrical distribution systems has been one of the most persistent and difficult problems facing the electric utility industry. The performance and characteristics of electrical system configurations are vital factor in reducing or increasing the effect of faults on the system as earthing system, switch gear, protective relays, active and reactive power generation, etc. Protective systems are designed to sense faults and initiate fault clearing in a timely manner while minimizing the affected area. Protective relays are used to sense the faults and initiate circuit breakers tripping. Alternatively, fuses are used on the distribution system to sense and clear faults.

Electrical faults can cause severe damage when not interrupted promptly. In some cases, high-impedance fault currents may be insufficient to operate protective relays or blow fuses. Standard over current protection schemes utilized on secondary distribution at some industrial, commercial and large residential buildings may not detect high-impedance faults, commonly called arcing faults. In these cases, more careful design techniques, such as the use of ground fault circuit interruption, are required to detect arcing faults and prevent burn down. When a short-circuit fault occurs, the fault path explodes in an intense arc. Local customers endure an interruption and customers farther away, a voltage sag; faults cause most reliability and power quality problems. Faults kill and injure line operators. Crew operating practices, equipment and training must account for where fault arc are likely to occur and must minimize crew exposure. When faults occur, we have ways to reduce their impacts. This course focuses on the general characteristics of faults and specific analysis of common fault types with suggestions on how to reduce them.

This course is designed to present methods of Electrical Fault analysis, causes, detection and remedies in Electrical Networks and Distribution Cables, particularly with the aid of a personal computer and Power System Simulator. The approach is designed to develop participant’s thinking process, enabling them to reach a sound understanding of a broad range of topics related to electrical faults, while motivating their interest in the electrical power industry. The course includes many case studies describing present day, practical applications. Those case studies and exercises will be solved in the class.

## Course Objectives

Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:

  • Identify the major faults which the electrical networks encounter that cause curtail of electrical supply and how to mitigate it
  • Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on electrical fault characteristics and the fault calculation
  • Discuss the limiting fault currents and arc characteristics
  • Discover the High-Impedance Faults, the Equipment Faults and the External & Internal Fault Causes
  • Differentiate symmetrical faults, symmetrical components and the unsymmetrical faults
  • Explain the grounding system of generation, transmission and distribution networks and how it affects the electrical quantities, short circuit level and protection system
  • Identify the causes of voltage deviations and its effect on auxiliaries of generators, industrial loads and the stability of electrical power systems
  • Discuss the reasons of the shortage of active and reactive power in electrical networks and its effect on the electrical quantities
  • Realize the effect of environmental conditions on the electrical equipment and the abnormal phenomena, which affect the electrical networks
  • Discuss the electrical system protection, circuit breakers, fuses and relays and the application and setting of each protection equipment within the electrical network
  • Explain the electrical system restoration (Brown-out, Black-out)

Course Outline

DAY 1:

  • General Fault Characteristics
  • Causes of Faults
  • Types of Faults
  • Fault Calculations
  • Transformer Connections
  • Fault Profiles
  • Effect of X/R Ratio
  • Secondary Faults
  • Primary-to-Secondary Faults
  • Fault Location Calculations
  • Limiting Fault Currents
  • Arc Characteristics
  • High-Impedance Faults

DAY 2:

  • External Fault Causes
  • Trees
  • Weather and Lightning
  • Animals
  • Other External Causes
  • Equipment Faults
  • Symmetrical Faults
  • Case Study: The Problem of Arcing Faults in Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems
  • Series R-L Circuit Transients
  • Three-Phase Short Circuit – Unloaded Synchronous Machine
  • Power System Three-Phase Short Circuits
  • Circuit Breaker and Fuse Selection
  • Definition of Symmetrical Components
  • Sequence Networks of Impedance Loads
  • Sequence Networks of Series Impedances
  • Sequence Networks of Three-Phase Lines
  • Sequence Networks of Rotating Machines
  • Per-Unit sequence Models of Three-Phase Two-Winding Transformers
  • Per-Unit Sequences Models of Three-Phase Three-Winding Transformers
  • Power in Sequence Networks
  • Case Study: Fires at U.S. Utilities
  • System Representation
  • Single Line-to-Ground Fault
  • Line-to-Line Fault
  • Double Line-to-Ground Fault
  • Sequence Bus Impedance Matrices
  • Symmetrical Components
  • Unsymmetrical Faults

DAY 3:

  • Other Faults
  • Lightning
  • Pollution
  • Switching
  • Transients
  • Harmonics
  • System Grounding
  • Generation Units
  • Power Transformers
  • Transmission Lines
  • Distribution System
  • Arrangement of Grounding in Power System
  • Reach
  • Inrush and Cold-Load Pickup
  • Circuit Interrupters
  • Circuit Breakers
  • Circuit Breaker Relays
  • Reclosers
  • Expulsion Fuses
  • Current-Limiting Fuses
  • Distribution Protection
  • Protection Equipment
  • Transformer Fusing

DAY 4:

  • Device Coordination
  • Station Relay and Recloser Settings
  • Expulsion Fuse-Expulsion Fuse Coordination
  • Current-Limiting Fuse Coordination
  • Recloser-Recloser Coordination
  • Coordinating Instantaneous & Timed Elements
  • Fuse Saving vs Fuse Blowing
  • Industry Usage
  • Effects on Momentary and Sustained Interruptions
  • Coordination Limits of Fuse Saving
  • Long-Duration Faults and Damage with Fuse Blowing
  • Long Duration Voltage Sags with Fuse Blowing
  • Optimal Implementation of Fuse Saving
  • Optimal Implementation of Fuse Blowing

DAY 5:

  • Other Protection Schemes
  • Time Delay on the Instantaneous Element (Fuse Blowing)
  • High-Low Combination Scheme
  • SCADA Control of the Protection Scheme
  • Adaptive Control by Phases
  • Reclosing Practices
  • Reclose Attempts and Dead Times
  • Immediate Reclose
  • Single-Phase Reclosers with Three-Phase Lockout
  • Brown-out
  • Black-out
  • Single-Phase Protective Devices
  • System Restoration

Course Methodology

A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:

  • (30%) Based on Case Studies
  • (30%) Techniques
  • (30%) Role Play
  • (10%) Concepts
  • Pre-test and Post-test
  • Variety of Learning Methods
  • Lectures
  • Case Studies and Self Questionaires
  • Group Work
  • Discussion
  • Presentation

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Fault Analysis in Electrical Networks & Distribution Cables at ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

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