Transmission System Protection

ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

How long?

  • 5 days
  • in person

ICTD International Centre for Training and Development


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Who should attend

Designers, Engineers and Technicians from Distribution Companies and Power Utilities, Engineering Professionals in Electricity Supply Industry, Petrochemical Companies, Buildings and Service Managers who have to deal with the aspect of electrical and industrial power system protection, control and operation. Participants need no specific requirements other than good understanding of electricity and magnetism and some relevant experience.

About the course

Protection systems are installed to prevent faults from damaging distribution equipment. Protective relays initiate isolation of faulted sections in order to maintain continuity of supply elsewhere on the system while lightning arresters bypass the excess energy of voltage surges to earth. The modern microprocessor-controlled relays also provide facilities to monitor system performance and permit adjustment of relay settings by remote control. Digital technologies based on microprocessors have greatly modified solutions used in design of protection and control systems. The role of a protection device is: to continually monitor various parameters for part of the network (line, cable or transformer) and to act in the case of a fault, and increasingly frequently to transmit information for operation of the network. It analyses the electrical values that are supplied to it by measurement device sensors, and gives operating commands to the switching circuits. Having been limited to electromagnetic technology, MV protection devices are today undergoing fundamental development with the use of microprocessors. Thus, the equipment available today is based on three technologies: electromagnetic, analog and digital.

Course Objectives

Upon the successful completion of this course, each participant will be able to:

  • Demonstrate the importance of the protection concepts in the power system
  • Complete information will be given about the different protective relay types; electromagnetic, analog and digital
  • Also instrument transformers and transducers necessary for the protection process will be covered. Different protective systems and schemes will be demonstrated
  • Then, the approaches followed for the protection of each power system component (alternator, transformer, bus-bar, feeders, e.t.c) will be fully explained
  • Explain the dangers of lightning strokes, and the means by which the power lines and buildings are protected

At the end of the course, the participant will have the ability to deal with the relays, to design proper schemes for protecting any equipment and the whole power system.



  • Role of relaying theory
  • Relaying Fundamentals: The nature of relaying; Relay terminology
  • Electromechanical relays: Types; Construction; Operation

Instrument Transformers

  • Transducers
  • Current transformers
  • Voltage transformers
  • Capacitive potential devices
  • Transient Phenomena: DC offset in fault currents; CT and CVT transients; Restrike; Ferroresonance

Over-current Protection and Earth Fault Protection

  • Introduction
  • Applications of overcurrent protection
  • Relays used in overcurrent protection
  • Characteristics of relay unit for overcurrent protection
  • Methods of CT connections in overcurrent protection of 3-phase circuits: Connection schemes with three relays; Connection schemes with two relays and two CT’s; Connection schemes with three relays and two CT’s
  • Earth fault protection
  • Connections of CT for earth fault protection: Residually connected earth fault relay; Earth fault relay connected in neutral to earth circuit
  • Directional overcurrent protection
  • Directional earth fault protection

Differential Protection

  • Introduction to differential protection
  • Application of differential protection
  • Principle of circulating current differential (Merz-Price) protection
  • Difficulties in differential protection
  • Differential protection of 3-phase circuits

Distance Protection

  • Introduction to distance protection
  • Principle of R-X diagram
  • Theory of impedance measurement
  • Method of analysis
  • Directional impedance relay
  • Torque equation of directional impedance relay
  • Modified (shifted characteristics)

Transformer Protection

  • Introduction
  • Nature of transformer faults
  • Gas actuated devices: Pressure relief relay; Rate of rise pressure relay; Buchholz relay

  • Differential systems: Description; CT matching

  • Problems associated with transformer differential protection

  • Differential protection of three winding transformer

  • Auto-transformer differential protection

  • Earth fault protection

  • Overcurrent protection of power transformers

Bus-bar Protection

  • Introduction
  • Differential protection

Feeder Protection

  • Introduction
  • Overcurrent protection
  • Directional overcurrent protection
  • Distance protection
  • Differential protection

Protection from Direct Lightning Strokes

  • Introduction
  • Protective zone of lightning conductors
  • Experimental determination of protective zone of lightning conductors
  • Protective zone of the lightning masts
  • Protective zone of ground wires
  • Specifications of lightning conductors

Microprocessor-based Relays

  • Microprocessor in protection technology
  • Block Diagram and components of a digital relay
  • Basic principles of digital relays
  • Microprocessor-based relays
  • Description of a microprocessor based protective relay for motor protection
  • Advantages and special features of microprocessor-based protective relays
  • Block diagram of a microprocessor-based distance relay for protection of transmission line
  • On line microprocessor-based fault monitoring
  • Micro-processor-based fault locators

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Transmission System Protection at ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

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Read more about Information Technology

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