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ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

Modern Power System Protection & Relaying Applications & Analysis

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About the course

Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:

  • Apply proper techniques in power systems protection and relaying
  • Identify various faults and their effects including the effect of faults on equipment
  • Recognize the implications of various system grounding techniques on system performance
  • Explain protection devices and technology including history, construction and principles of protection relays
  • Discuss instrument transformers including current and voltage transformers as well as types, construction, performance, specification and applications
  • Review tripping devices of circuit breakers and illustrate the mechanism of electric arc breakdown
  • Explain the principles & calculation of settings for grading and protection coordination & cite practical examples
  • Analyze overhead lines protection including the common types of faults and causes
  • Implement the proper procedure for transformer protection related to restricted Buchholz relay, overpressure, oil and winding temperature
  • Apply the proper procedure for motor protection by analyzing motor data requirements as well as identifying various electrical and mechanical faults
  • List the various generator data requirements, types of faults, excitation fault protection and mechanical fault protection
  • Identify miscellaneous protection including voltage and frequency protections, bus bar protection and circuit breaker failure protection

Course Outline

DAY 1:

  • Basic Concepts
  • Introduction to the Topic
  • Main Electric Parameters and Laws
  • Standards and Regulations
  • Standard Voltages
  • Faults & Their Effects
  • Types of Faults and Causes
  • Lightning, Switching Overvoltage and Use of Surge Arresters
  • Safety, Safety Distances and the Dangers of Faults
  • Short-circuit Faults (Phase and Earth Faults)
  • The Effect of Faults On Equipment (Thermal and Electromechanical Stress)
  • Short-circuit Calculations
  • Examples and Exercises
  • Solid, Impedance and Ungrounded Systems
  • The Implications of Various Grounding Techniques on System Performance
  • System Grounding

DAY 2:

  • System Grounding (cont’d)
  • Earth Grid and Calculations
  • Touch and Step Potentials
  • Examples and Exercises
  • Protection Devices and Technology
  • Introduction to Protection
  • Protection Relays (History; Construction and Principles of Operation; Modern Technology)
  • Classification of Protection Relays and Codes
  • Main Protection and Back-up Protection
  • Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED’s)
  • Fuses (Characteristics, Applications and Special Cares)
  • Examples and Exercises
  • Current & Voltage Transformers
  • Types, Construction, Performance, Specification and Applications
  • Magnetisation Curve and Characteristics (Ratio, Accuracy and Burden Power)
  • Testing
  • Examples
  • The Mechanism of Electric Arc Breakdown
  • Types of Circuit Breakers and Applications (LV, MV and HV)
  • Main Characteristics
  • Operating Mechanism, Tripping Circuits and Control Systems
  • Examples
  • Instrument Transformers
  • Tripping Devices – Circuit Breakers

DAY 3:

  • Grading & Protection Co-ordination
  • Principles
  • Analysis in HV, MV and LV Networks (Transmission and Distribution Networks; Users’ Networks)
  • Calculation of Settings
  • LV Approach (Typical Time-Current Curves and Selectivity of LV Circuit Breakers)
  • Practical Examples
  • Overhead Lines Protection
  • Analysis in HV, MV and LV Networks (Transmission and Distribution Networks) – Common Types of Faults and Causes
  • Distance Protection (Principle and Application)
  • Line Differential Protection (Principle and Application)
  • Overcurrent Protection
  • Temporary Faults and Auto-Reclosing
  • Practical Examples
  • Common Types of Faults and Causes
  • Differential Protection
  • Overcurrent Protection (Thermal and Short-circuit)
  • Basic Theory of Transformers
  • Types of Transformers and Applications
  • Cable Protection
  • Transformer Protection

DAY 4:

  • Transformer Protection (cont´d)
  • Main Electric Characteristics and Vector Group
  • Built-on Protections (Buchholz Relay, Overpressure, Oil and Winding Temperature)
  • Transformer Differential Protection (Principle and Application)
  • Overcurrent Protection
  • Practical Examples
  • Motor Protection
  • Motor Data Requirements
  • Common Types of Faults (Electrical and Mechanical)
  • Motor Controllers and Starters
  • Overcurrent (Phase-to Earth and Phase-to-Phase Short-circuit) and Thermal Overload Protection
  • Negative Phase Sequence, Phase Unbalance and Phase Reversal Protections
  • Bearing Temperature, Winding Temperature, Vibration and Blocked Rotor Protections
  • Practical Examples and Exercises
  • Generator Data Requirements and Basic Theory
  • Common Types of Faults (Electrical and Mechanical)
  • Generator Protection

DAY 5:

  • Protection (cont’d)
  • Rotor and Stator Electric Faults Protection
  • Excitation Fault Protection
  • Voltage and Power (Reverse Power) Protections
  • Overfrequency and Overspeed Protections
  • Mechanical Faults Protection
  • Practical Examples and Exercises
  • Miscellaneous Protections
  • Voltage and Frequency Protections
  • Bus Bar Protection
  • Circuit Breaker Failure Protection
  • Scheme Design
  • SAT and FAT
  • Commissioning
  • Maintenance and Testing
  • Protection Relay Management

Course Methodology

A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:

  • (30%) Based on Case Studies
  • (30%) Techniques
  • (30%) Role Play
  • (10%) Concepts
  • Pre-test and Post-test
  • Variety of Learning Methods
  • Lectures
  • Case Studies and Self Questionaires
  • Group Work
  • Discussion
  • Presentation

Who should attend

This course is intended for electrical engineers, managers, supervisors, foremen and other technical staff involved in power systems protection and relaying.

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