Practical Plant Failure Analysis: Understanding Machinery Deterioration and Improving Equipment Reliability

ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

ICTD International Centre for Training and Development


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Who should attend

This course is intended to anyone responsible for fixing machinery or equipment when it goes wrong, anyone who needs to manage teams of experts, all of whom are absolutely convinced they’re right and all of whom violently disagree.

  • Facility managers, technical managers, project managers, lead discipline experts.
  • Anyone who wants better to understand how to solve problems from understanding the fundamental physics

About the course

The course will provide a refreshment of knowledge for the how Rotating equipment work and what are main problems facing it during operations of them. Also, it will provide a solid foundation for technologists moving into a machine monitoring and diagnostic role

It gives a detailed advanced treatment of the detection, location and diagnosis of faults in Rotating and Reciprocating Machinery. Industrial case study and examples are used throughout the course to emphasize key points and to underline the relevance and applicability of the topics being addressed.

Maintenance spare part stores have to function well, see illustration. Maintenance Planning and Scheduling is critical for every successful individual and company.

This comprehensive 5-day program has been designed to all Industrial fields to benefit both new professionals as well as experienced professionals. It covers advanced best maintenance practice that a qualified professional would require to carry out his duty starting with the first steps and building up in a stair case fashion to a fully functional maintenance organization.

Course Objectives

Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:

  • Know when and how to conduct a physical failure analysis
  • Determine basic material properties including heat treating mechanisms, work hardening, and the effects of temperature changes on material properties
  • Identify the differences in appearance between ductile overload, brittle overload, and fatigue failures
  • Explain high cycle fatigue and how to differentiate between high stress concentrations and high operating stresses
  • Explain low cycle fatigue and unusual fatigue situations
  • Describe lubrication and its influence on the three basic bearing designs
  • Recognize ball and roller bearings, gears, fasteners, V-belts, and synchronous belts
  • Use a detailed and systematic approach, practical plant failure analysis thoroughly explains the four major failure mechanisms—wear, corrosion, overload, and fatigue—as well as how to identify them
  • Recognize how these mechanisms appear in various components and supplies convenient charts that demonstrate how to identify the specific causes of failure

Course Outline

Day 1

An Introduction to Failure Analysis

  • The Causes of Failures
  • Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and Understanding the Roots
  • The Human Error Study
  • Latent Roots
  • How the Multiple Roots Interact
  • The Benefits and Savings
  • Summary

Some General Considerations on Failure Analysis

  • The Failure Mechanisms: How They Occur and Their Appearances
  • Summary

Materials and the Sources of Stresses

  • Stress
  • Elasticity
  • Plasticity
  • Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus)
  • Toughness
  • Fatigue
  • Some Basic Metallurgy
  • Plain Carbon Steel: The Basics
  • Understanding Steel Terminology and Material Designations
  • Strengthening Metals
  • Summary

Day 2

Overload Failures

  • Introduction
  • Unusual Conditions
  • Summary

Fatigue Failures (Part 1): The Basics

  • Fatigue Failure Categories

Fatigue (Part 2): Torsional, Low-Cycle, and Very-Low-Cycle Failure Influences and

Fatigue Interpretations

  • Torsional Fatigue Loads
  • River Marks and Fatigue Crack Growth
  • Plate and Rectangular Failures
  • Fatigue Data Reliability and Corrosion Effect on Fatigue Strength
  • Residual Stress
  • Combined Fatigue and Steady State Stresses
  • Base Material Problems
  • Very-Low-Cycle and Low-Cycle Fatigue
  • Very-Low-Cycle in Relatively Brittle Materials
  • VLC in Ductile Materials
  • Unusual Situations
  • Failure Examples

Day 3

Understanding and Recognizing Corrosion

  • Corrosion Rates
  • pH Effects
  • Effect of Available Oxygen
  • Exposure Time and Flow Effects
  • Temperature Effects
  • The Eight Types of Corrosion

Lubrication and Wear

  • Three Types of Lubricated Contacts
  • Manufacturing a Lubricant
  • Greases
  • Lubricant Applications
  • Summary
  • Defining Wear Mechanisms
  • Summary Comments on Wear Failures

Belt Drives

  • Belt Design
  • Belt Operation and Failure Causes
  • Drive Efficiencies
  • Belt Drive Failure Analysis Techniques

Day 4

Ball and Roller Bearings

  • Bearing Materials
  • Parts of a Bearing
  • Cages
  • Bearing Ratings and Equipment Design
  • A Detailed Rolling Element Bearing Failure Analysis Procedure
  • Roller and Tapered Roller Bearing Mounting Surfaces
  • Summary


  • Gear Terminology
  • Types of Gears
  • Tooth Action
  • Load and Stress Fluctuations
  • Gear Materials
  • Tooth Contact Patterns
  • Backlash
  • Design Life and Deterioration Mechanisms
  • Through-Hardened Gear Deterioration Mechanisms
  • Case-Hardened Gear Deterioration Mechanisms
  • Analyzing Gear Failures
  • Failure Examples
  • Summary

Day 5

Fastener and Bolted Joint Failures

  • How Bolts Work
  • Fastener Failures
  • Failure Examples

Miscellaneous Machine Element Failures

  • Chains
  • Lip Seals
  • Flexible Couplings

Course Methodology

A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:

  • (30%) Based on Case Studies
  • (30%) Techniques
  • (30%) Role Play
  • (10%) Concepts
  • Pre-test and Post-test
  • Variety of Learning Methods
  • Lectures
  • Case Studies and Self Questionaires
  • Group Work
  • Discussion
  • Presentation

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Practical Plant Failure Analysis: Understanding Machinery Deterioration and Improving Equipment Reliability at ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

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