Mechanical Equipment: Compressor, Pumps, Motors and Variable Speed Drive
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The course will introduce delegates to the different types of pumps, motors and drives and their associated terminology. Centrifugal and positive - displacement pumps and compressors, packing, mechanical seals and sealing systems, bearings and couplings will all be discussed.
The application of the different types of pumps and compressors will be discussed along with their suitability for different operational duties. Pump operation, troubleshooting and maintenance will be dealt with in depth.
Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:
- Understand the different types of pumps and compressors
- Operate pumps and compressors as close as possible to the design efficiency
- Monitor pump and compressor efficiency, availability and reliability
- Learn about selection, operation and maintenance strategies
- Troubleshoot pump and compressor problems
The knowledge gained in this course will:
- Enable the delegate to develop a proactive maintenance regime within the organization.
- Allow tighter control of maintenance budgets by the avoidance of unplanned equipment failures in service.
- Enable the delegate to optimize the operation and maintenance of different types of pumps and compressors.
- Give the delegate confidence to carry out failure analyses on pumps and compressors thereby avoiding repetitive failures.
## Course Outline
- Compressor types: positive displacement (reciprocating and rotary), and dynamic (centrifugal and rotary), compressor operation, gas laws
- Compressor performance measurement, inlet conditions, compressor performance, energy available for recovery
- Positive displacement compressors, reciprocating compressors, reciprocating compressors, diaphragm compressors.
- Rotary compressors, rotary screw compressor, lobe type air compressor, sliding vane compressors, liquid ring compressors
- Dynamic compressors, centrifugal compressors, axial compressors
- Air receivers, compressor control, compressor unloading system
- Intercoolers and after coolers, filters and air intake screens
Centrifugal & Axial Compressors
- Principle of operation of centrifugal and axial flow compressors, characteristics of centrifugal and axial flow compressor
- Surging, choking, bleed valves, variable stator vanes, inlet guide vanes
Compressor Systems Calculations
- Affinity Laws for centrifugal compressors
- Calculations of air leaks from compressed-air systems, annual cost of air leakage
- Centrifugal compressor power requirement
- Compressor selection, calculations of air system requirements
- Characteristics of reciprocating compressors and blowers
- Selection of air distribution system, water cooling requirements for compressors
- Sizing of compressor system components, sizing of air receiver
- Calculations of receiver pump-up time
- Pump definition, pump categories: dynamic and displacement reciprocating & rotary
- Centrifugal pumps: theory of operation of a centrifugal pump, casings and diffusers, radial thrust, hydrostatic pressure tests
- Impeller, axial thrust, axial thrust in multistage pumps, hydraulic balancing devices, balancing drums, balancing disks
- Centrifugal pumps general performance characteristics, cavitation, net positive suction head and requirements
Bearings & Lubrication
- Types of bearings, ball and roller bearings, stresses during rolling contacts
- Statistical nature of bearing life, materials and finish, sizes of bearings, types of rolling bearings, thrust bearings
- Used oil Analysis: proper lube oil sampling technique, test description and significance, visual and sensory inspections, chemical and physical tests, water content, viscosity, emission spectrographic analysis, infrared analysis, total base number (TBN), total acid number (TAN), particle count, summary
Positive Displacement Pumps
- Reciprocating pumps, piston pumps, plunger pumps, rotary pumps, screw pumps, lobe pump
- Cam pumps, vane pumps, metering pumps
- Engineering of system requirements, fluid type, system head curves, alternate modes of operation, margins, wear, future system changes
- Selection of pump and driver, pump characteristics, code requirements, fluid characteristics, pump materials, driver type
- Pump specification, specification types, data sheet, codes and standards, bidding documents, technical specification, commercial terms, special considerations, performance testing, pump drivers
- Special control requirements, drawing and data requirements form, quality assurance and quality control, bidding and negotiation
- Public and private sector, bid list, evaluation of bids, cost, efficiency, economic life, spare parts, guarantee/warranty, simple bid evaluation.
- Basic components, temperature control, seal lubrication/leakage, typical single inside pusher seal
- Maintenance recommended on centrifugal pumps, recommended pump maintenance
Vibration Analysis & Predictive Maintenance
- Vibration instrumentation, velocity transducer, acceleration transducer, transducer selection, time domain, frequency domain, machinery example, vibration analysis
- Vibration causes, forcing frequency causes, unbalance, misalignment, mechanical looseness, bearing defects, gear defects, oil whirl, blade or vane problems, electric motor defects, uneven loading, drive-shaft torsion
Maintenance of Motors
- Introduction to AC induction motors and their construction, rotor slip and principles of operation, equivalent circuit, torque-speed characteristics, motoring and regenerative region of operation
- Starting of induction motors and associated techniques
- Speed control methods of induction motors
- Characteristics of motors, enclosures and cooling methods, application data, design characteristics, insulation of AC motors
- Failures in three-phase stator windings, predictive maintenance, motor troubleshooting, diagnostic testing for motors
Variable Speed Drives
- Basic principles of AC Variable-Speed Drives (VSD's), constant torque region, constant power (extended speed) region, four quadrant operation
- Power semiconductors, diode, thyristor (SCR), IGBT, MOSFET, GTO and others
- Inverters, Voltage-source and Current-source, Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) inverters
Variable Speed Drives
- Two-level pulse width modulated inverter, DC link energy and capacitor sizing, regeneration or dynamic slowdown, dynamic breaking, regeneration
- PWM waveforms and analysis, effects of PWM on motor bearings and insulation and life expectancy, Volts/Hertz control, start up and operation, dynamics, PWM rectifier inverter systems
- Switching transients, harmonics and power factor, failures, common failure modes, fault current limit, device explosion rating, device application, thyristor failures and testing, identification of failed Thyristor and Diode, testing of Thyristor and Diode
- AC drive applications issues, Line power factor, Effect of AC input on drive operation, IGBT switching transients, insulation voltage stress, motor winding voltage distribution, Radiated and Conducted Electromagnetic Interferences (EMI), cable terminating (matching) impedance, inverter output filter, EMI filtering
- Cabling details for AC drives, cable details, motor, cable, and power system grounding, motor bearing currents, motor shaft grounding brush, reduction of stator to rotor capacitance value, motor cable wiring practices
- Summary of application rules for AC drives and selection criteria
- Maintenance, common failure modes, motor application guidelines
- Control systems, low performance and open loop operation, medium performance and closed loop operation, high performance and closed loop operation, current feedback control, speed control, sensor less drives, evaluation and comparison. Industry standards and case studies.
A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:
- (30%) Based on Case Studies
- (30%) Techniques
- (30%) Role Play
- (10%) Concepts
- Pre-test and Post-test
- Variety of Learning Methods
- Case Studies and Self Questionaires
- Group Work
Who should attend
This course is directed towards Supervisors, Team Leaders and Professionals in Maintenance, Engineering and Production. It is suitable for who expects to become involved at any stage in project applications and applicable maintenance technologies. The course will also benefit anyone those wishes to update themselves on pump and compressor technology, judge the suitability of different types of pumps and compressors for their needs, and learn how to operate and maintain them for the benefit of their organizations.