ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

Boiler Water Treatment Practice

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About the course

This course will provide a comprehensive review of the principles of boiler water conditioning. The ASME and EPRI Boiler Chemistry Guidelines will be developed. Oxygen control by means of deaeration and chemical treatment will be reviewed. Boiler design principles will be developed, including heat transfer, circulation effects, and high-pressure requirements. The special requirements of HRSGs will be reviewed in depth.

The chemistry and control of phosphates, chelant, and sludge conditions were be reviewed in depth. Problems and solutions associated with steam purity and condensate corrosion will be covered in detail with several practical examples. Guidelines for chemical cleaning will be developed.

The course reviews resin structure, function, and the gamut of water purification applications from softening to the preparation of ultra-quality water. The course has been modified to focus on monitoring performance and reacting to system upsets.

Course Objectives

Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:

  • Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on boiler water treatment practice
  • Explain the purpose of ion exchange dealkalizers, decarbonators and degasifies
  • Discuss the properties, resources, chemistry of water and the elements of contaminated water
  • Discuss the pretreatment requirements for ion exchange as well as synthesis, types, water hydration and commercial equivalents of ion exchange resins
  • Carryout resign testing, pre-treatment for corrosion control, oxygen control and deaeration
  • Explain the process of two bed demineralization and mix beds as well troubleshooting methods
  • Explain the three faces of water treatment and the pretreatment for control of scale
  • Discuss chemical cleaning of boilers, condensate corrosion, heat recovery system generators, failures analysis and boiler tube testing
  • Describe the equipment, service and regeneration reactions and troubleshooting of ion exchange softening

Course Outline

Day 1


  • Water Chemistry, Boiler Water Quality Requirements

Oxygen Control:

  • Mechanical Deaeration, Chemical Scavenging, Testing

Boiler Calculations:

  • Cycles of Operation, Blowdown Monitoring

Principles of Internal Treatment:

  • Boiler Design and Heat Flux, Circulation

Deposition Control:

  • Either Low Pressure—Phosphates, Chelants, Dispersants; or High Pressure—Iron Deposition, Dispersants. EPRI Guidelines (Participants will Choose One)

Day 2

Corrosion Control:

  • Either Low Pressure—Corrosion Control in Cast Iron Boilers, Boiler System Testing or High Pressure—Coordinated Phosphate/pH, Congruent Control, AVT, Neutral Oxygen

Heat Recovery Steam Generators:

  • Flow and Load Considerations, Multiple Pressure System Chemistries

Carry-Over Control:

  • Carry-Over Mechanisms, Steam Purifications, Monitoring Carry-Over

Chemical Cleaning of Boilers:

  • Commissioning Cleaning, Deposit Monitoring, Deposit Removal

Day 3

Condensate Corrosion:

  • Corrosion Mechanisms, Amine Treatment, Testing

Condensate Polishing:

  • Mixed Beds, Powdered Resin Units, Magnetic Filtration

Failure Analysis:

  • Boiler Tube Failure Modes, Metallurgical Analysis, Metallurgical Workshop

Boiler Tube Testing:

  • Destructive Sampling and Non-Destructive Testing Methods, Visual Boiler Inspection

Day 4

Introduction of Ion Exchange:

  • Water Chemistry Units, Pretreatment Requirements of Ion Exchange

Ion Exchange Resins:

  • Synthesis, Types, Water of Hydration, Commercial Equivalents

Ion Exchange Softening:

  • Equipment, Service and Regeneration Reactions, Troubleshooting

Two-Bed Demineralization:

  • Equipment, Service and Regeneration Reactions, Performance Expectations

Two-Bed Demineralization:

  • Equipment, Service and Regeneration Reactions, Performance Expectations

Individual Conferences:

  • Participants’ Water and Resin Analyses

Day 5

Two-Bed Demineralization (continued):

  • Exhaustion Profiles, Distributor Design, Regenerant Dilution Systems

Troubleshooting Demineralizers:

  • Short Run, Poor Water Quality, Resin Problems

Mixed Beds:

  • Makeup Mixed Beds, Performance Expectations, Regeneration Protocols, Three Component Systems, Uniform Particle Size Resins

Resin Testing:

  • Vessel Inspection, Sample Procurement, Interpretation of Resin Analysis, Decision to Clean or Replace

Who should attend

This course will provide knowledge in all significant aspects and considerations of boiler water treatment technology for utility superintendents, power house supervisors and plant engineers. Foremen/women and shift supervisors will also gain job enrichment by understanding the importance of water treatment equipment, early detection of problems and operator training techniques. Those in a design capacity at architect-engineering firms will find merit in the review of the technology. At the corporate level, this course provides update for company water consultants or engineering review committee members. This course is especially valuable for engineers working on plant expansions since technology trends are reviewed. Special emphasis has been added on cogeneration and combined cycle systems. Also, R&D, laboratory and corrosion professionals will highly benefit from this course.

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