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About the course
This course introduces the practices of controls systems and safety controls for industrial steam generating boilers.
It focuses on the control and safety requirements applicable to most types of boilers from small gas-fired units to large multi-fuel installations. The workshop will provide training in how control and instrumentation is designed to manage the main variables such as drum water level, furnace draft, combustion fuel and air conditions.
Burner management systems are introduced with their principal features including flame safety systems. The essential safety requirements for boilers and burners are identified and the corresponding safety interlocks are explained as practical solutions in accordance with the latest safety standards.
The training includes a study of the basic principles of burner management systems and includes the measures used to support furnace safety through the enforcement of start-up procedures and purge sequences. The requirements for burner management systems to be engineered as safety instrumented systems to IEC 61511 are examined and the implications for equipment design are discussed.
The training modules in this course are supported by a series of practical study exercises with answers provided to assist the understanding of key issues.
Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:
- Understand the objectives of the principal boiler control functions
- Recognize and understand typical boiler control diagrams and their design intentions.
- Contribute to the setting up and tuning of boiler control loops.
- Identify principles and design concepts governing:
- Boiler feed water control
- Flue gas analysis and fuel combustion trimming controls
- Importance of boiler safety control and start-up interlocks
- Explore advanced control strategies for improved boiler plant efficiency
- Furnace draft measurement and control
- Steam demand and firing rate control
- Main steam and reheat steam temperature control
- Hazards of boiler operations
- The main control functions in boilers and furnaces
REVIEW OF PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION RELEVANT TO BOILERS
- Principles of sensors and transmitters with examples for boilers
- Closed loop control principles including feedback, feedfoward, ratio and limiting.
- Control system hardware and software tools.
- Safety instrumented controls and the impact of IEC 61511
- Instrumentation diagrams and symbols per ISA and SAMA.
- Distributed control systems and the separation of safety systems
FEEDWATER AND DRUM LEVEL CONTROL
- Performance requirements: Level, quality, stability
- Characteristic responses of drum level
- Level control solutions, 1, 2 and 3 element types
- Level measurement problems and practices
- Drum level safety systems
FURNACE AIR AND DRAFT CONTROLS
- Performance requirements; pressures and temperatures
- Characteristic responses and means of control
- Pressure measurement methods and the pressure profile
- Temperature control and the impact of dew point
- Protection against implosion
- The combustion process and its requirements for efficiency and safety
- Coal, oil and gas firing types.
- Stoichiometric air and excess air requirements
- Fuel-air ratio control and its measurements
- Firing rate controls and cross limiters for improving dynamic response
- Methods for measurements of boiler efficiency using analysers
- Application of optimising controllers
BURNER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
- Safety and performance requirements of pulverisers, burners and igniters.
- Furnace safety standards and regulations
- Flame monitors and flame failure detection
- Start-up protection and sequencing
- Furnace supervisory controls and shutdown systems
- STEAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL
- Superheater and attemperator arrangements
- Essential control requirements
- De-superheater controls
STEAM PRESSURE AND BOILER LOAD CONTROLS
- Pressure and flow response characteristics
- Single boiler load control
- Multiple boiler installations and load sharing controls
SUMMARY, QUESTIONS, OPEN FORUM AND CLOSING
A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:
- (30%) Based on Case Studies
- (30%) Techniques
- (30%) Role Play
- (10%) Concepts
- Pre-test and Post-test
- Variety of Learning Methods
- Case Studies and Self Questionaires
- Group Work
Who should attend
This course is intended for all senior boiler plant operators, repairers and installers, control system engineers, instrumentation engineers and technicians, boiler plant commissioning engineers, operation, maintenance, inspection and repair specialists, mechanical engineers and technicians, design engineers, consulting engineers.