Advanced Oil & Gas Production: Crude Oil Desalting and Dehydration Process

ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

How long?

  • 5 days
  • in person

What are the topics?

ICTD International Centre for Training and Development


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Who should attend

Technical personnel involved in the activities of natural gas industry. Specifically, technical, operations and maintenance personnel who had limited exposure in this area, or professionals involved in other areas of the gas industry who require a comprehensive overview of natural gas processing will find this course ideally suited for them.

About the course

The purpose of this course is to present an overview and advanced understanding of the wide range of oilfield production handling and treatment equipment. The attendee would learn not only “what” but “how” field fluid treating equipment works. The fundamental principles of fluid behavior are first introduced, then applied to all of the various equipment and systems comprising production operations. Emphasis is on understanding the internal workings inside the piping, valves and vessels. A major goal of this course is to improve communication among the technical disciplines, field and office in order to enhance operational efficiencies, lower costs and improve production economics. Example step-by-step exercises are worked together with the instructor to drive home the important points. Daily sessions include formal presentation interspersed with directed discussion and problem solving. Besides Overview of the gas industry and gas processing – Surface facilities; gathering lines and system; and phase separations.

This course studies all aspects of gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities with particular focus on the practical aspects of managing, evaluating, sizing, selecting, installing, operating and trouble-shooting. A proper understanding and execution of each of the above is a key in assuring a surface production facility that operates at maximum efficiency and experiences minimal problems:-

  • The physical properties and phase behavior of crude oil and natural gas that govern production operations
  • Impact of pressure, temperature and fluid on key hydrocarbon parameters
  • Safety systems: surface safety control systems; relief valves; pressure ratings; API recommended practices
  • Flow lines, manifolds and gathering systems: material selection, pressure drop considerations, line sizing, corrosion, noise and erosion concerns, full well stream production, two and three phase fluid flow, pigging, slugs, foam and emulsions
  • Mechanical equipment: Pumps, compressors, heaters, sour and acid gas treating, pressured vessels, storage facilities and other surface and subsurface treating/fluid handling equipment ,Valves: API valves, chokes, regulators, and flow control devices;
  • Gas separation/treating: two and three phase separation, free water removal, treatment of emulsions, hydrate prevention and treatment, vapor recovery, gas conditioning for sales, injection or field usage
  • Oil / water separation and treatment: two and three phase separation, emulsion breaking, asphaltenes, solids control, removal of residual oil-in-water and water-in-oil to meet pipeline specifications or injection / disposal requirements, hydro cyclones and new water / oil treating equipment
  • Fluid measurement and instrumentation: Liquid and gas metering using positive displacement meters, orifices, sonic meters, mass measurement meters, three phase flow measurement and new metering devices
  • Acid gas treatment: field handling and treatment of sour and acid gases, safety considerations, API standards
  • Corrosion: fundamental principles; detection, prevention and treatment
  • Treating facility innovations: up-to-date description of new equipment for handling high pressure/temperature, three phase flow from subsea and remote locations

Course Objectives

Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:

  • Understand the physical properties and phase behavior of crude oil and natural gas that govern production operations
  • Understand the field processes for treating and conditioning full well stream production for sales or final disposition
  • Familiarize the wide range of equipment used to process, treat, transport, and store oilfield produced fluids
  • Gain knowledge of oilfield corrosion prevention, detection and treatment
  • How to determine and minimize pressure drop in pipelines, valves and pressured vessels Internal workings of separators, pumps, compressors, valves and other treating equipment
  • An overview of the processes and equipment used to handle acid gases
  • Gain knowledge of basic understanding of a wide range of produced fluid volume measurement and metering devices
  • Learn to identify the description of treating equipment whether located down hole, on the surface, offshore platform or sea floor.

Course Outline

Day 1

  • Chemical and physical properties of crude oil
  • Types of Storage Tanks
  • Crude oil storage tanks and supply distribution
  • Separation Facility Equipment:-
  • Equipment description - Horizontal vs. Vertical vessel selection - Vessel internal
  • Gas – oil – and water separation
  • Principles of liquid flow through pipelines
  • Breaking oil/water emulsion
  • Dehydration
  • Theory of emulsions, Factors promoting stability of oil – water emulsions,
  • Treatment of wet – crude oil ,Principles of electric dehydration
  • Alternating current and dual polarity electrostatic system

Day 2


  • Desolaters
  • Desalting of crude oil
  • Desalting process
  • Performance and design data
  • Theory, operating condition, troubleshooting
  • Pumps and compressors
  • Determine wash water quantity
  • Design considerations
  • The production Facility:
  • Making the equipment work
  • Gathering pipelines system
  • Process corrosion , fouling and scaling
  • Facilities Integration Troubleshooting
  • Retention time Carry – over problems
  • Water Treatment:
  • Water Treatment principles Water Treatment methods Water Treatment networks
  • Calculation of hydrate forming conditions
  • Methods for preventing hydrate formation – Chemicals (inhibitors (methanol), advanced methods and methanol injection rates), Heat (line heaters and heat tracing), and dehydration (glycol dehydration, refrigeration, and molecular sieves).

Day 3

  • Physical properties of hydrates - Density, heat capacity, heat of formation, and mechanical properties.
  • Water content of gas – Calculating the water content of sweet, sour and acid gas.
  • Use of phase diagrams to understand the subtleties of hydrate formation conditions – Phase Ioci, triple points, quadruple points, pressure- temperature diagrams, and temperature-composition diagrams, and temperature-composition diagrams
  • Determination of hydrate formation temperature or pressure
  • Condensation of water vapor
  • Temperature drop due to gas expansion
  • Thermodynamic inhibitors
  • Kinetic inhibitors and anti-agglomerators
  • Low temperature exchange (LTX) units and line heaters
  • LTX units
  • Line heaters
  • Condensate stabilization

Day 4

  • Dehydration with liquid desiccants – Glycols, Safety, physical properties, Storage and Handling and tri-ethylene glycol (TEG) o Glycol dehydration
  • TEG Dehydration process description – Glycol contactor, inlet separator, the regenerator and process flow
  • TEG Dehydration : Design – Inlet gas temperature, contactor pressure, number of equillirium stages, circulation rate, contactor diameter, lean glycol temperature, glycol concentration, reboiler temperature, reboiler pressure, stripping gas, still temperature and reboiler duty
  • TEG Dehydration: Operation – Operations problems and dehydration unit start-up
  • Adsorption Process
  • Adsorbent selection
  • Solid desiccant dehydration – Absorbents, process description and dryer regeneration.
  • Mole sieve simplified design – Absorption design and regeneration
  • Process selection
  • Solid bed dehydration
  • Process description
  • Design consideration
  • Design procedure for iron-sponge units

Day 5

  • Natural Gas treating chemical Removal of ACID GASES, physical Absorption of ACID GASES Adsorption
  • LPG and C5 + Sweetening.
  • Sulfur recovery
  • Liquefied Natural Gas
  • Refrigeration systems
  • Cascade Refrigeration
  • Application of Refrigeration
  • Cryogenic gas processing
  • Elements of turbo expander plants
  • Principles of cryogenic processing
  • Design calculations
  • The turbo expander control
  • Expander/compressor Operation
  • Principles of demethainzer operation

Process Control and Safety Systems – Control objectives and control loops; PID control theory; control valves; and flow measurement and control. Flow of Fluids – Pressure drop in piping; choosing a line diameter and wall thickness; pressure ratings and determining pressure breaks; designing Loop Systems; Single-Phase and two-phase flow; testing and inspection; pigging; and flow splitting.

Course Methodology

A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:

  • (30%) Based on Case Studies
  • (30%) Techniques
  • (30%) Role Play
  • (10%) Concepts
  • Pre-test and Post-test
  • Variety of Learning Methods
  • Lectures
  • Case Studies and Self Questionaires
  • Group Work
  • Discussion
  • Presentation

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Advanced Oil & Gas Production: Crude Oil Desalting and Dehydration Process at ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

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