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ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

Power System Operation

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Description

The objectives of the course of Power System Operation (LDC) include the desire to acquaint electric power engineers and qualified technicians with Load dispatching center and the role of independent system operator in pool versus bilateral market. The active and reactive power control is also the main desire of this short course as well as the voltage control. This includes a functional description of the transmission system, control, maintenance, and lightning protection as well as the routine maintenance requirements of the overhead lines and underground cable. The course will include another objective for lightning over voltages and physical phenomenon of lightning, interaction between lightning and power system, and switching over voltages.

Advanced load-flow methods, especially, power system state estimate, security-constrained economic dispatch, active and reactive power dispatch and optimal capacitor allocation have been included.

Course Outline

Introduction

  • Characteristics Influencing Generation and Transmission
  • Loads
  • Representation of Power Systems
  • Nature of Transmission and Distribution Systems
  • Statistics of Systems
  • Distribution Systems
  • Use of Digital Computers

Forecasting T&D Load

  • Spatial Load Forecasting
  • Load Growth Behaviour
  • Important Elements of A Spatial Forecast
  • Improvements to Multiple Regression Curve-fitting
  • Selecting a Forecast Method

Overview of Economic Operation Functions

  • Different Criteria that Govern Power System Operations
  • Overview of EMS Functions
  • Generation Functions
  • Network Analysis Functions
  • Power Flow Control

Characteristics of Power Generating Units

  • Characteristics of Power Generating Units
  • Automatic Generation Control
  • Parallel Operation of AC Generators

Formulation of the Economic Dispatch Problem

  • Objective Function of EDP for Thermal Units
  • Constraints of EDP
  • Equal incremental cost loading
  • Accounting for Transmission Losses
  • The General Loss Formula
  • Optimal Solution to EDP with Losses
  • All Thermals System, with no losses
  • Accounting for Losses
  • The Lambda Iteration Method
  • First Order Gradient Search
  • Linear Programming Based Economic Dispatch

Power Flow Studies

  • Power Flow
  • Evaluation of Penalty Factors
  • Optimal Power Flow
  • Conventional Optimal Economic Scheduling
  • Conventional OPF Formulation
  • Operational Requirements for On-Line Implementation
  • Conclusions

Unit Commitment

  • General Considerations
  • Problem Formulation
  • Priority List Unit Commitment Scheme
  • A Simple Merit Order Scheme
  • Dynamic Programming Unit Commitment Schemes
  • Need for Approximations
  • Lagrangian Relaxation Approach
  • Single Unit Relaxed Problem
  • Lagrangian Relaxation Procedure
  • Requirement for Economic Dispatch
  • Modified Formulation Dispatch and Solution Candidates for Shut-down

Optimization Techniques

  • Optimization of Constrained Functions and Functional
  • Non-Linear Programming
  • Interior Point Methods
  • Linear Programming

Optimal Preventive and Corrective Actions

  • Introduction
  • Optimization in Security Control
  • Optimization Subject to Security Constraints
  • The Time Variable
  • Using an Optimal Power Flow Program
  • Power System Security and Contingency Analysis
  • Development of the Concept of Security
  • Two Perspectives of Security Assessment
  • Security Assessment Defined
  • Implications of Security
  • Security Analysis
  • Historical Methods of Contingency Analysis
  • Selection of Contingencies to be studied

Fault Analysis

  • Introduction
  • Calculation of Three-phase Balanced Fault Currents
  • Method of Symmetrical Components
  • Representation of Plant in the Phase-sequence Networks
  • Bus Impedance (Short circuit Matrix) Method
    Disturbances in Power Systems

  • Sudden Disturbance

  • Predictable Disturbances

  • Forms of System Failure

  • Definitions and Concepts Used in Emergency Control

  • The Effects of Various Types of Fault or Disturbance on System Performance

  • Typical Pattern of the Development of a Sudden Disturbance

  • Conceptual Forms of Emergency Control

  • Design Criteria for Emergency Control Facilities

  • Measures to Minimize the Impact of Disturbances

  • Factors in Onset, Severity and Propagation of a Disturbance

  • Measures in the Operational Timescale to Minimize the Risk and Impact of a Disturbance

  • Special Protection Schemes

  • Reduction in the Spread of Disturbances

  • Measures to Minimize the Impact of Predictable Disturbances

Restoration

  • Introduction
  • The Range of Disturbed System Conditions
  • Some General Issues in Restoration
  • Recovery from an Abnormal Operating Situation, Local Islanding or Localized Loss of Demand
  • The 'Black Start' Situation
  • Strategies for Restoration of the Whole System Aids in the Restoration Process
  • Problems Found in Restoration
  • Analysis, Simulation and Modeling in Blackstart
  • Restoration from a Foreseen Disturbance

Electricity Deregulation

  • Competitive Markets for Electricity Generation
  • Competitive Generation
  • The Advantages of Competitive Generation
  • Competitive Pricing of Electricity
  • The Market Response to Risk
  • Conclusion
  • Electricity Deregulation

Harmonics in Power Systems

  • Introduction
  • The Nature of Harmonics
  • The Generation of Harmonics
  • The Effects of Harmonics
  • The Limitation of Harmonics
  • Ferroresonance and Subharmonics

Course Methodology

A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:

  • (30%) Based on Case Studies
  • (30%) Techniques
  • (30%) Role Play
  • (10%) Concepts
  • Pre-test and Post-test
  • Variety of Learning Methods
  • Lectures
  • Case Studies and Self Questionaires
  • Group Work
  • Discussion
  • Presentation

Who should attend

All engineers and technicians involved in the power sectors and power station operation, planning, and maintenance, and also in the factories, and enterprises, especially in dispatching load center.

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