Energy Saving and Power Factor Improvement
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In an ideal a.c. power system, the voltage and frequency at every supply point would be the constant and free from harmonics, and the power factor would be unity. Most Industrial loads have lagging power factors. That is they absorb reactive power. The load current therefore tends to be larger than is required to supply the real power alone. Only the real power is ultimately useful in energy conversion and the excess load current represents a waste to the consumer, who has to pay not only for the excess cable capacity to carry it but also for the excess joule loss produced in the supply cables.
The supply utilities also have good reasons for not transmitting unnecessary reactive power from generators to loads. Their generators and distribution networks cannot be used at full efficiency, and the control of voltage in the supply system can become more difficult. Supply tariffs to industrial consumers almost always penalize low power factor loads.
It is much more practical and economical to size the power system according to the maximum demand for real power, and to manage the reactive power by means of compensators and other equipment which can be deployed more flexible than generating units and which make no contribution to fault levels.
Most a.c. power systems are three-phases, and are designed for balanced operation. Unbalanced operation gives rise to components of current in the wrong phase sequence (i.e. negative and zero sequence components). Such components can have undesirable effects, including additional losses in motor and generator units, oscillating torque in a.c. machines, increased ripple reactive in rectifier, malfunctions of several types of equipment, saturation of transformers, and excessive neutral currents. The load compensation improves the phase balancing and power factor correction of unsymmetrical loads. Many utilities need this particular course, which cover the illustration of main concepts of reactive power management using actual case studies.
Towards the end of the training, the participants will be able to:
Understand the basics of reactive power and power factor. Understanding main concepts of management of active and reactive power Know the importance of power factor improvement and its deferent methods How to improve the quality of supply in a.c. power system. Know how to calculate manually by hand the different techniques for power factor improvement. How to use the generators, distribution networks, and equipment at full efficiency. To get familiar with capacitors, their structure and their ability to improve the power factor. Study of capacitors installation locations in high voltage, medium voltage and low voltage networks. Solving capacitors problems, and capacitors maintenance. Familiar with different applications of capacitors in high voltage, medium voltage and low voltage networks. Know what is Static VAR Compensators: construction, types and control methods. To get familiar with Static VAR Compensator applications in power systems (high and medium tension) To know how to select, calculate, connect the reactive power compensator to improve the power factor, the voltage regulation and the load balancing in the utilities and industrial networks. To know the problems appear due to use compensation equipment and how to mitigate those problems.
SECTION 1: CONDUCTING AN ENERGY AUDIT
SOURCES OF ENERGY
WHAT IS AN ENERGY AUDIT?
ENERGY AUDIT PROGRAMS
BENEFITS OF ENERGY AUDIT
ENERGY AUDIT APPROACH
ENERGY AUDIT CHARACTERISTICS
SECTION 2: BASIC CONCEPTS
Alternating Current Circuits
Instantaneous Power (p)
Capacitor Construction and Operation
Loss Angle or Tan d
Exercises: Power Calculations of Loads
Do It Yourself
SECTION 3: POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT – GENERAL
Causes of low power factors
Known loads power factors
Annual power factor penalty
Unfavorable effects of low power factor loads
Capacitor price simple payback
Power factor improvement
Economic considerations of power factor improvement
SECTION 4: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF CAPACITORS
Power Factor Improvement for Power Transformer
Power Factor Improvement for Induction Motors
Automatic Control of Capacitors
Steps and Stage Size Considerations
Microprocessor controlled capacitor
Harmonics and harmonic filters
Power Factor Improvements for Welding Plant and Arc Furnaces
SECTION 5: CAPACITOR LOCATION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION
Making a Capacitor Element
Making Capacitor Unit From Elements
Making Capacitor Banks From Capacitor Units
Precautions Against Overvoltages on the Failure of Some Units
Capacitance Unbalance Detection
Over Current and Short Circuit Protection
Protection of Series Capacitors
Capacitor Operation Problems and Solutions
Checking Capacitor Banks for Failed Capacitors
SECTION 6: APPLICATION OF POWER CAPACITOR IN POWER SYSTEM
Effects of Capacitors on Power Supply Circuits
Application of Shunt Capacitors to Power Supply Systems
Application of Series Capacitors to Power Supply Systems
SCADA Controlled Multi-Step Automatic Controlled Capacitor Banks & Filter Banks
SECTION 7: SVC AND REACTIVE POWER CONTROL
What Are Static VAR Compensators?
Types of Static VAR Compensators
Basis of Selection of Compensator Type
Static VAR Compensators Thyristors
SVC's Control Technique
Applications of SVC
Design of SVC Parameters
A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:
(30%) Based on Case Studies
(30%) Role Play
Pre-test and Post-test
Variety of Learning Methods
Case Studies and Self Questionaires
Who should attend
This course is intended for Junior & Senior Electrical Engineers, who work in operation, planning, maintenance, protection, control and analysis of Utilities & Industrial Electrical Networks.