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ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

Transformer Operation, Maintenance, Diagnosis & Testing

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Description

This course covers the theory, operation, maintenance, diagnosis and testing of power transformers and auxiliary equipment.

This course is designed to provide delegates a detailed and up-to-date overview of transformer operation, maintenance and testing. It covers basic concepts of transformer including the main electric parameters and laws, magnetism and electromagnetism, circuits, star and delta connections, theory, the role of transformers in power systems, standards, regulations and voltages as well as the various types and construction of transformers.

This course will also cover the special transformers, transformer components, materials, cooling of transformers, transformer performance, electrical parameters and transformer faults. During the course, participants will be able to employ proper protection, operation and factory acceptance test (FAT), install, test and commission transformer and carryout transformer maintenance, routine inspections, diagnostic analysis, life expectancy and extension.

Course Objectives

Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:

  • Operate, maintain, troubleshoot and test power transformers in a professional manner
  • Discuss the basic concepts of transformer covering the main electric parameters and laws, magnetism and electromagnetism, Lenz and Faradays Laws, circuits, star and delta connections, theory, the role of transformers in power systems, standards, regulations and voltages
  • Identify the various types and construction of transformers
  • Describe special transformers as well as enumerate transformer components and materials
  • Determine cooling of transformers, transformer performance and electrical parameters
  • Recognize transformer faults and employ proper protection, operation and factory acceptance test (FAT)
  • Install, test and commission transformer efficiently
  • Carryout transformer maintenance, routine inspections, diagnostic analysis, life expectancy and extension

Course Outline

DAY 1:

Basic Concepts

  • Main Electric Parameters and Laws
  • Magnetism and Electromagnetism
  • Lenz & Faraday’s Laws
  • Single and Three-phase Circuits (3 and 4 Wires)
  • Star (Y) & Delta (Δ) Connections
  • Basic Transformer’s Theory
  • The Role of Transformers in Power Systems
  • Standards and Regulations
  • Standard Voltages

Types & Construction of Transformers

  • Oil-filled Transformers with Expansion Tanks
  • Oil-filled Sealed Transformers
  • Dry Transformers
  • Gas Insulated Transformers (GIT)
  • Two and Three Windings Transformers
  • Applications
  • Single Phase Transformers
  • Autotransformers
  • Arc Furnace Transformers
  • Rectifier Transformers
  • Zig-Zag & Grounding Transformers
  • Instrument Transformers

DAY 2:

Transformer Components & Materials

  • Steel Core
  • Copper and Aluminium Windings
  • Insulation Materials
  • Expansion Tank and Radiators
  • Expansion Tank and Radiators
  • Bushings
  • Cooling System
  • Tap Changers
  • Built-on Protections
  • Accessories

Cooling of Transformers

  • Heat Dissipation & Load
  • Environment & Cooling of Transformers
  • Cooling Fluids
  • Types of Cooling Systems & Notations (ONAN; ONAF; OFAF; OFWF; AN; GIT)
  • Rated Power & Cooling System

Transformer Performance & Electrical Parameters

  • Rated Power
  • Rated Voltages and Ratio
  • Rated Frequency Losses and Efficiency
  • Impedance Voltage Drop

DAY 3:

Transformer Performance & Electrical Parameters (cont’d)

  • Vector Group
  • Voltage Regulation (On-load Tap Changers & Off-load Tap Changers)

Transformer Faults & Protection

  • Oil & Insulation Faults
  • Windings Faults
  • Overloads and Overheating
  • Built-on Protections
  • Built-on Protections
  • Differential Protection
  • Overcurrent Protection
  • Restricted Earth Fault Protection
  • Overload Protection

Transformer Operation

  • Inrush Currents and Harmonics
  • Parallel of Transformers
  • Power Factor
  • Lightning & Switching Overvoltages
  • Surge Arresters
  • Fire Protection

Factory Acceptance Tests (FAT)

  • Type Tests
  • Routine Tests

DAY 4:

Factory Acceptance Tests (FAT) (cont’d)

  • Routine Tests
  • Special Tests
  • Oil Testing

Transformer Installation, Testing & Commissioning

  • General Layout

Transformer Installation, Testing & Commissioning

  • Floor Mounted Transformers
  • Pad Mounted Transformers
  • Pole Mounted Transformers
  • Oil Retention Basin
  • Neutral Grounding
  • Earthing and Bonding
  • Transportation and Handling
  • Site Acceptance Tests (SAT)

DAY 5:

Transformer Maintenance, Routine Inspections & Diagnostic Analysis

  • Establishing a Preventive Maintenance & Inspection Program
  • Safety
  • Visual Inspection
  • Insulation Resistance (Oil & Solid)
  • Insulation Power Factor (PF)
  • Oil Analysis & Samples
  • Windings

## Course Methodology

A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:

  • (30%) Based on Case Studies
  • (30%) Techniques
  • (30%) Role Play
  • (10%) Concepts
  • Pre-test and Post-test
  • Variety of Learning Methods
  • Lectures
  • Case Studies and Self Questionaires
  • Group Work
  • Discussion
  • Presentation

Who should attend

This course is applicable to engineers and other technical staff who need a sound understanding of power transformer operation, maintenance, troubleshooting or testing.

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