Bank Capital Adequacy Under Basel III
The overall goal of this two-day workshop is to provide participants with an understanding of how capital is regulated under Basel II and III and appreciate the impact that changing regulatory capital requirements may have upon the bank’s exposures and ultimately upon its balance sheet management and strategy.
Specifically the goals of the training are to equip participants to:
- Understand the role and importance of capital in a bank’s balance sheet and identify the composition and relative importance of the different measures of capital from a regulatory perspective (Core Capital, Tier 1 Capital and Tier 2 / 3 Capital)
- Be able to recognise the main drivers of regulatory capital requirements from a product perspective, and be able to appreciate the effect of variables such as duration, volatility, exposure at default, loss given default and counterparty probability of default upon the capital requirements of typical product groups utilised by banks.
- Be aware of the enhancements to the Basel accord from Basel II.5, Basel III and on-going proposed changes to regulatory capital methodologies. Particular attention will be given the emphasis on core capital, additional capital requirements for trading books, counterparty risk, liquidity management and leverage.
- Appreciate the potential impact on bank’s strategy, product range and likely composition of a bank balance sheet resulting from Basel and other associated regulatory changes.
The goal of this section is to introduce the role of capital in the overall management, regulation and supervision of a bank and the approach to capital regulation taken by Basel III.
- Why capital management is critical to banks
- The role and importance of capital in the banking business model
- Differentiating expected versus unexpected loss and the role of capital
- Defining and quantifying risk for capital and risk management purposes: Credit, market, liquidity, operational and others.
Perspectives on capital: regulatory, supervisory, market and management
- Differing perspectives: shareholders, regulators, management
- Accounting or common capital
- Economic capital: Internal management assessment of unexpected loss
- Supervisory approach: Role of capital in overall regulation
- Development of regulatory capital regulation under Basel I and Basel II
- Case Study: Compare and contrast shareholder’s funds, economic and regulatory capital
- Lessons learned from the global financial crisis applied to regulatory capital adequacy
- Role of Basel II.5 and Basel III in addressing pre-crisis weaknesses in the global banking system
Analytic Overview (continued)
3 Pillar Structure of the Basel II and III Accords
Pillar 2: Supervisory review process, ICAAP, description of risk management process specific risks, including changes to Pillar 2 effective from 2011:
- Interest Risk in the banking book
- Credit Stress testing
- Impact of reputation risk (e.g. on liquidity and contingent liabilities)
- Management of securitisation exposures
- Principles of Pillar 3
- New disclosure requirements under Basel II.5 and Basel III
Implementation status of Basel II.5, Basel III; Europe CRD IV, US Dodd-Frank.
Credit Risk: Calculation of Risk Weighted Assets for Regulatory Capital
The goal of this section is to give an understanding of the main techniques used to calculate regulatory capital for credit risk under Pillar I of the Basel II/III accords, and give an update of the latest regulatory changes
Credit risk fundamentals
- Fundamentals: Principles of calculating regulatory capital for credit risk
- Identifying types of credit risk and those which require specific pillar I capital allocation
- The Standardised Approach:
- Risk weights by exposure class and rating
- Internal ratings based approaches
- Credit risk: Key elements - exposure at default, probability of default and loss given default
- Incorporation of correlation into the Basel framework for different exposure classes
- Calculation of capital charges for IRB exposures
- Qualitative aspects of IRB approach; regulatory approval, data requirements, rating scales
- Contrast capital allocation for IRB and standardised approaches
- Case study: Comparing standardised and IRB exposures for a large international bank.
Regulatory capital treatment for specific classes of credit risk exposure
- Derivative counterparty risk; fundamental challenges of measuring exposure, current exposure, standardised and advanced approach
- Basel III changes to derivative counterparty risk measurement: Credit valuation adjustments (CVA), purpose of CVA and regulatory capital formulae, impact of CVA on credit quality of derivatives portfolio, stressed inputs to models, correlation adjustments for large counterparties, central counterparties, and specific wrong-way risk
- Exercise: impact of Basel III counterparty risk rules on risk weighted assets
- Contingent exposure: Credit conversion factors for exposure at default under the Standardised/FIRB approaches. Challenge of EAD for AIRB approach. Changes to contingent liquidity obligations under Basel III and implications for bank products such as letters of credit
- Securitisation: Standardised and RBA approaches. Changes to framework for re-securitisation exposures (CDOs). Perceived shortcomings with existing securitisation framework and proposed revised Basel framework
- Covered bonds; Regulatory capital treatment, importance of other factors such as liquidity eligibility.
Credit risk mitigation framework for regulatory capital
- General capital treatment of risk mitigation via risk weights and loss given default
- Netting of exposures: application of ISDA agreements or other netting occurrences for regulatory capital mitigation
- Exercise: managing credit exposures and mitigation effect
- Collateral: simple and comprehensive approaches
- Treatment of credit hedging and guarantees under the regulatory capital framework
- Securitisation as a credit risk mitigant and the development of capital arbitrage
- Case study: securitisation capital arbitrage
The goal of the market risk section is to address the fundamentally different approach to capital requirements for market risk compared to credit risk, and to review how regulations have been revised under Basel II.5 to more comprehensively capture risks arising from trading book positions.
Fundamental approach to market risk vs. credit risk
Standardised approach to market risk and revisions under Basel II.5
Model based approaches: Value at Risk (VaR) models
Regulatory requirements; data standards, confidence intervals and holding periods, back-testing, stress and scenario testing
Exercise: Back-testing VaR
Basel II.5 changes to market risk
- Stressed VaR; Calculation basis and potential effects
- Rationale for capturing credit risk in the trading book
- Incremental Risk Charge: capture of default and credit migration risk in the trading book
- Liquidity horizons and their integral role in calculation of the incremental risk charge
- Specific rule changes for correlation trading, nth to default portfolios etc.
- Pillar 2 & 3 amendments arising from Basel II.5 trading book revisions
- Likely capital impact of Basel II.5 and impact on trading business models
Case Study: impact of Basel II.5 upon a large international bank
Potential future revisions to market risk framework proposed by the BIS 2012-13.
Operational risk was a new risk brought into the regulatory capital framework for Basel II. The aim of this section is to explore the fundamental challenges of calculating capital charges for operational risk and to understand the various methodologies available to banks under Basel II and Basel III.
- Definitions and sources of operational risk
- The challenge of allocating/quantifying capital for operational risk
- Exercise: operational risk examples
- Basic indicator, Standardised and Advanced Management Approaches (AMA)
- Regulatory standards for AMA, and their relative usefulness
- Typical quantitative and non-quantitative methods applied under AMA
- Architecture of a typical AMA bank’s operational risk capital system
- Comparison of operational risk capital requirements across global banks.
The goal of this section is to review the definitions of bank capital under Basel Accords and the key characteristics which determine the classification of capital. Particular focus will be given to the changing requirements for bank capital under Basel III.
Core Equity Tier 1
- Rational for Basel III requiring higher levels of Core Equity Tier 1 capital
- Criteria: permanence and loss absorbing capability
- Composition of Core Tier 1: ordinary shares, retained earnings, other accumulated comprehensive income
- Levels of core capital required under Basel III: minimum core capital, capital conservation buffer, G-SIFI requirements, counter-cyclical buffer and
- Deductions from core capital: e.g. cross holdings in other institutions, deferred tax relating to prior year losses, excess expected loss. Changing capital treatment from Basel II to Basel III for deductions.
Other Tier One Capital
- Types: Preference shares, innovative capital securities
- Hybrid capital: differentiating features between regular and innovative - coupon, non-cumulative, non-redeemable, convertible, calls and step up etc.
- Performance of Tier one hybrid capital during the crisis: degree of loss absorption
- Phase out of incentives to redeem under Basel III & Dodd Frank
- Contingent Capital (CoCo's) role and likely regulatory treatment as other Tier 1 capital.
Tier Two Capital
- Types: cumulative preference shares, perpetual and dated subordinated debt
- Typical features of dated subordinated debt: fixed coupon, ten year, five year non-call maturity step-up, default and cross default features
- Criteria: Basel limitations of 50% of tier one, amortisation of capital eligibility
- Performance of Tier two capital during the crisis - going concern versus gone concern loss absorption
- Case study: effect of Basel III on the capital ratios of a large international bank
Other Regulatory Capital “Hot Topics”
- Global Systemically Important Financial Institutions (GSIFI’s) criteria and disclosure.
- National regulatory capital requirements in excess of Basel III; EU local systemic buffers, Swiss finish, UK ICB, and other expected national enhancements to requirements
- Contingent Capital: principles, issues, regulatory capital treatment and market examples
- Proposed Basel III leverage ratio rules; calculation, disclosure and timing
- Treatment of specific product types under Basel leverage ratio rules e.g. derivatives, secured financing transactions, trade finance and off-balance sheet positions.
- Potential transactions/mitigants to “improve” an institutions leverage ratio.
- Comparison of Basel/CRD IV in Europe to existing leverage ratio requirements (e.g. USA, Canada, Switzerland)
- Potential implications of a “Blunt instrument” such as the leverage ratio upon bank risk appetite, capital allocation and product pricing decisions
- Case study: impact of leverage ratio on capital requirements compared to leverage for a large international bank.
The goal of this section is to contrast the historic approach to regulation of liquidity compared to capital, understand the purpose and calculation methodologies of the Basel III liquidity ratios, and understand the potential implications of their introduction, particularly at a time when capital adequacy requirements are also being increased.
- Fundamental nature of liquidity risk and rationale for the absence of a capital requirement.
- General treatment of liquidity risk under Basel I & II.
- Pillar II Principles for sound liquidity management: stress testing, contingency planning, risk tolerance, liquidity pricing etc.
- Liquidity risk tolerance given different business models, e.g. retail and wholesale banks, multi-nationals and investment banks
- Strategies, policies and practices
- Liquidity costs, benefits and risks
- Definition of liquid assets
- The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: calculation guidelines and worked example applied to a large international bank
- Net Stable Funding Ratio: calculation principles and disclosure example
- Implications of the leverage ratio upon profitability, risk weighted assets, products and business models.
- Exercise: implications of the Basel leverage ratios on bank balance sheet line items
- Basel liquidity accord supervisory monitoring tools.
Who should attend
Bankers, internal auditors, regulators and analysts, but is also appropriate for a broader audience who wish to gain insight into capital adequacy and its importance for banks. The course is targeted at an intermediate level and assumes a basic understanding of accounting, banking products and functions. Fitch Learning has a number of other workshops which address complementary topics. These include Risk Management in Banks, Intensive Bank Analysis and Liquidity Risk Management in Banks. Please contact us if you would like further advice on which workshop is appropriate.