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ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

Water Treatment and Oil Well Injection

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Produced water is widely used as a source water for injection to maintain pressure in, or water flooding, the reservoir. Re-injection of produced water is one option that offers a solution to the problem of disposal, however availability of produced water is often insufficient for water flood requirements and often needs to be commingled with another type of source water e.g. aquifer, lake/river, or sea water. When undertaking characterization studies of source waters a number of physical and chemical characteristics must be established.

Meeting water quality specification for injection or reinjection is essential for protecting the permeability of a reservoir. It is also necessary for developing the water drive required for enhanced oil recovery, and subsequently for increased production. The specification should consider untreated water quality, porosity/permeability characteristics, fracturing potential, treatment constraints, the injection philosophy, life of the project, and the compatibility of the injection water with reservoir rock and the formation water.

This course is designed to provide participants with an overview on the different types of water treatment methods, for water injection systems either by produced water or seawater as found in today’s oil and gas industry.

Course Objectives

Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:

  • Determining injection profiles and designing drilling patterns
  • Determining the reservoirs response to water influx
  • Learn and understand the water lifting/transfer from source location
  • Filtration and chemical injection
  • Understand the water property monitoring and recording recording
  • High pressure, high flow rate pumping equipment
  • Installation and operation of temporary injection facilities
  • Exposure to new technologies
  • Optimization of chemicals
  • Typical issues related to HP multistage pumps

Course Outline

Day 1

Coarse Screening/Strainers

  • Back flushing strainers
  • Travelling water screens
  • Fine solids separation/filtration
  • Media filters
  • Gravity clarifiers
  • Solids contact clarifiers
  • Adsorption clarifiers
  • Microfiltration filters

Day 2


  • Vacuum deaerators
  • Gas strip deaerator
  • Solids handling
  • Gravity thickeners
  • Filter presses
  • Belt filter presses
  • Centrifuges

Day 3

Chemical Feed systems

  • Chemical feed systems
  • Chlorine generation/feed systems
  • Electro-chlorination systems

Produced Water Treatment

  • Solids separation
  • Solid/liquid hydrocylones

Day 4

Primary Produced Water Separation

  • Corrugated plate separators (CPS)
  • API separators
  • Solid/liquid hydrocyclones
  • Liquid/liquid hydrocyclones
  • Secondary produced water separation
  • Induced air/gas flotation separators
  • Dissolved air/gas flotation separators
  • Vertical gas flotation

Day 5

Tertiary produced Water Separation

  • Walnut shell filters
  • Media Filters
  • Activated carbon filters

Advanced Treatment

  • Biological treatment
  • Ion exchange softening
  • Warm lime softeners
  • Hot lime softeners

Solids Handling

  • Gravity thickeners
  • Filter presses
  • Belt filter presses
  • Sand jetting systems
  • Centrifuges
  • Chemical feed system

## Course Methodology

A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:

  • (30%) Based on Case Studies
  • (30%) Techniques
  • (30%) Role Play
  • (10%) Concepts
  • Pre-test and Post-test
  • Variety of Learning Methods
  • Lectures
  • Case Studies and Self Questionaires
  • Group Work
  • Discussion
  • Presentation

Who should attend

This course is intended for Chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, process, operations, productions and field engineers and all advanced operators.


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