ICTD International Centre for Training and Development

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About the course

Water treatment is a process of making water suitable for its application or returning its natural state. Thus, water treatment required before and after its application. The required treatment depends on the application.

Water treatment involves science, engineering, business, and art. The treatment may include mechanical, physical, biological, and chemical methods. As with any technology, science is the foundation, and engineering makes sure that the technology works as designed. The appearance and application of water is an art.

Course Objectives

Upon completion of the module participants will be able to:


  • Identify technologies for desalination
  • Explain and compare membrane-based and thermal-based desalination
  • Tell current capacity of desalination in the world


  • Explain the basic principles of low pressure membranes
  • Identify advantages and differences in various commercial systems
  • Define and explain fouling and cleaning in low pressure membranes
  • Justify the use of low pressure membranes in membrane disinfection
  • Compare low pressure membranes with other technologies


  • Explain the basic principles of reverse osmosis
  • Identify and assess commercial elements and systems
  • Define and classify fouling and propose mitigation activities to control fouling in RO systems
  • Evaluate need for pre-treatment and for post-treatment in RO systems
  • Design manually and by commercial software seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis systems


  • Explain and design bank filtration systems
  • Describe aquifer recharge and reuse systems


  • Explain and identify advantages of various AOPs
  • Design AOPs for removal of contaminants


  • Assess potential applications of water reuse systems
  • Define water reuse and describe various case studies

Course Outline

Module 1: Water Sources, Types and Quality Conventional Water Treatment

  • Water cycle
  • Water resources
  • Surface water
  • Groundwater
  • Non-conventional water
  • Types of water polluters

Module 2: Conventional Treatment Stages

  • Coagulation and flocculation
  • Sedimentation
  • Filtration
  • Disinfection
  • Treated water supply
  • Disinfection points in the treatment plant

Module 3: Micro Filtration and Ultra Filtration

  • Basic principles of membrane filtration
  • Micro and ultra filtration elements
  • Systems fouling and cleaning
  • Membrane disinfection

Module 4: Desalination and Reverse Osmosis

  • Current status of desalination in the world
  • Thermal systems versus membrane systems
  • Fundamentals of desalination
  • Reverse osmosis elements and systems
  • Particulate and inorganic fouling
  • Organic fouling and bio fouling
  • Scaling, pre-and post-treatment
  • Process design of RO systems
  • Computer aided design of seawater reverse osmosis plants

Module 5: Advanced Oxidation Processes

  • Fundamentals of AOPs
  • Combinations
  • Applications

Module 6: Water Softening

  • Importance of water softening
  • By-pass flow
  • Stages of ion exchange softener
  • Interaction of chemical softening and coagulants
  • Methods of stabilizing water in chemical softening

Module 7: Operating of Water Treatment Plant

  • Goals of water treatment operation
  • Monitored functions and their locations
  • Daily operating procedures
  • Importance of flow regulation
  • Basic guidelines for handling consumers complaint

Module 8: Maintenance and Cleaning of the Treatment Plant

  • Preventive maintenance
  • Washing the filters
  • Periodic cleaning program
  • Handling and disposal of process wastes
  • Valves (Pressure reduces valve, air release valve, etc.)
  • Pumps and connections
  • Control system

Who should attend

This course is intended for all engineers with training needs in effluent treatment and a need for a better understanding of the available technologies as well as those practitioners who wish to improve their knowledge and skills in water treatment projects and communicate efficiently with vendors as an 'intelligent buyer'.

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